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in- vs out- of- band issues 1 

in- vs out- of- band issues 2

Separate Phy for NM

In- band management: For in- band management, management control information and data information are transmitted in one physical layer . It is cheaper compared to out- of- band management, but both management and data tranmission cannot work when network fails.

Out- of- band management: When we separate Phy for NM, we get out- of- band management. There is a dedicated management network to separate the system administrator and production network. In addition, routers provide the “ Console ” port to establish a production network outside of a dedicated management network, where production traffic and management traffic will no longer share the same physical channel[1]. It is safer and more robust than in- band management as Production networks and management networks are completely independent with each other.

Compare: If we compare Network Management to a street, in- band management is just like a street shared by pedestrians and vehicles. Once it blocks, it's not easy to remove the obstacles. Out- of- band is like a street separating sidewalk and driveway. Once the driveway blocks, we could go through sidewalk to remove obstacles and prevent transportation failure.

Reference: 1.